Glossary: L-Z

language == Roughly and generally defined as a system of communicating thought, idea, or meaning through a system of arbitrary signals, such as vocal-aural language, visual-manual language, or written symbols.

linguicism == a form of prejudice based on a language, an "-ism" along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. Broadly defined, it involves an individual making judgments about one's wealth, education, social status, character, and/or other traits based on choice and use of language.

linguistics == the scientific study of natural language

logocentrism == the metaphysical discourse that logos (the Greek term for speech, thought, law, or reason) is the central principle of language and philosophy. It relates to phonocentrism.

manual alphabet == Manual alphabet is a set of manual-visual handshapes corresponding to the alphabetical letters. Also "fingerspelling."

morphology == the study of the formation and inflection of words.

neologism == a newly invented word or a new meaning; the act of inventing a word or phrase.

nonce == a new word that one makes up on the spot and uses it only once.

onomatopoeia == term referring to the use of a word that resembles the sound or visual it imitates.

ontogeny == the origin and the development of an organism from the creation to its mature form.

phonocentrism == the superiority of speech language (e.g. presence) over written language (e.g. absence). also the metaphysical superiority of speech language over sign language.

phonology == the study of phonemes, the smallest units of language. This term is used in both sign language and spoken language linguistics.

poetics == the systematic study of literature, or a unified theory of texts.

pidgin == A pidgin language is a mix of two languages (eg. ASL and English) in signs.

sign language == Sign language is a visual-manual language, that is independent from auditory-vocal language. It has its own phonology, morphology, grammatical structure, syntax, and such. Sign language is not universal.

signoclasm == the practice of prohibiting or destroying sign language and/or visual-manual modality, along the lines of iconoclasm and iconoclast. Also signoclast; coined by Jolanta Lapiak, 2006.

synesthesia == a condition in which at least one or more senses are simultaneously or interchangeably perceived. stimulation of one sense triggers stimulation in another sense. e.g. hear colors, taste shapes

syntax == the study of sentence structure in a language.

transcription == a written representation of a spoken or signed language. Examples: "gloss", Stokoe notation, etc. Video can be considered a form of direct transcription of a sign language.

phonetic transcription == "Phonetic transcription (or phonetic notation) is the visual system of symbolization of the sounds occurring in spoken human language. The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet." (Wikipedia). Also "phonetic notation". Unlike orthology (another form of writing), phonetic transcription can describe differences in pronunciation between dialects within a given language.

transcription symbols == a set of conventional symbols for writing down ASL words and sentences from ASL.

translation == "The act or process of translating, especially from one language into another. The state of being translated."

visual language == Visual language is a generic term for visual-related languages such as sign language, written language, etc.

Also see Glossary: A-J.

Also see Glossing transcription symbols.