ASL 101 Tutorial: 4
- Review greetings
- Strategies: asking what a sign means and asking for clarification.
- Review pronouns and possessives.
- Discussing class. INSTRUCTOR, STUDENT, TEST, EXAM, ASSIGNMENT...
- Use a verb inflection for GIVE.
HELLO, GOOD SEE-YOU AGAIN.
Review: HOW YOU? Vocabulary of feelings.
Communication survival: What does it mean?
[sign] IX MEAN WHAT?
EXPLAIN AGAIN? / EXPLAIN MORE
DEPEND-on CONTEXT / CONTEXT+DEPENDENT
Review pronouns and possessives
Practice signing pronouns and possessives in sentences.
Spatial referencing and pronouns in sign language sentences
Learn how to use spatial referencing, using personal and possessive pronouns in sentences in American Sign Language (ASL).
Remember to use your index finger for personal pronouns (e.g. you, s/he, it) and whole hand with closed fingers for possessives (her, his, its).
There is no gender for pronouns and possessives in ASL unless you mention a gender in context (e.g. "A woman.. she..") in sentences. For this demonstration, there is no gender mentioned so she and he are interchangeable.
Gloss: IX1 POSS2 BROTHER
English equivalent: She/he is his/her brother.
Understand the glosses. IX is a index-finger pointing (pronoun) and POSS is a possessive. The number represents a spatial locus. E.g. The locus of IX1 is on the right side and IX2 is on the left side of the signer.
In this case, "She/he (IX1) is his/her (POSS2) brother.
Gloss: IX2 POSS1 STUDENT
English equivalent: She/he is his/her student.
You can establish IX1 in either right or left side and then assign the other side IX2. When talking about one person, one usually uses the dominant side of the signer. When talking about two persons, a signer usually uses the dominant side for the main subject.
Gloss: IX1 POSS2 TEACHER
English equivalent: She/he is his/her teacher.
Using two sentences above, notice that spatial referencing is stable. E.g. She (IX1) is her (IX2) teacher and she (IX2) is her (IX1) student. So, the teacher is IX1 and the student is IX2.
Gloss: IX1 MY MOTHER.
English equivalent: She is my mother.
Can you guess what does it mean?
Gloss: IX-me HER DAUGTHER.
English equivalent: I'm her daughter.
Try practicing more on your own as follows:
"I am her/his daughter (or son)."
"This is my cat (or dog)."
Verb inflection: GIVE
Learn how to use a verb inflection for GIVE.
Verb inflection in American Sign Language
A verb is a word that expresses an action, an event, or a state of being about the subject. Many ASL verbs can be modulated to indicate the subject and the object in a sentence. These inflected verbs are called indicating verbs. An indicating verb contain the information about the subjet-object structure.
The following base verbs that you learn in ASL 101 are some examples that can be modulated to contain the information about the subject and the object.
ask, copy, give, help, look-at, show, pay, tell, ...
For example, the indicating verb you-give-hir is a single signed verb in a ASL sentence [t]book[t] you-give-hir. The English translation is as follows: You give him/her the book.
If you change the movement in the opposite direction as above, the subject and the object are changed. That is, "S/he gives you the book."
This ASL verb help is a regular or base verb. It can be inflected within the subject-action-object structure.
This verb help is modified in direction, in which the signer moves from herself (the subject/pronoun "I") toward you (the object/pronoun "you"), that is "I help you."
Changing the direction results in a different subject-object structure. It indicates you-help-me.
The direction of this movement indicates help him/her. The locative in the right space refers to "her/him/it". The pronoun in ASL has no gender identity; it is neutral.
Not all verbs can be inflected. Below is a list of some ASL verbs that cannot be inflected. They are called plain verbs.
understand, know, ...
Now can you guess what it means? It's a crude equivalency to "I give you and you give me" or "we give each other".
In other word, the ASL word specifically means to-trade, to-exchange, or to give each other. It's called a reciprocal verb.
The ASL verb to-give can be inflected within a subject-action-object structure by changing a direction. The movement of this regular word to-give is not a directional verb.
The to-give is modified by directionality, in which the signer uses the same handshape of the verb to-give and moves from the herself (the subject/pronoun) toward you (the object/pronoun), that is "I give you." The indexing and the directionality are two of the modifiers in this sentence.
Changing the direction transforms from "I give it to you" to "you give it to me".
The signer says to the person B, "I give her/him" or "I give it to him/her". The handshape to-giveremains the same. The origin of the location is 'I' or 'me' (pronoun/indexing), the movement and direction indicate to-give, and the destination of the location refers to 'her/him/it' (pronoun/indexing).
Inversely, the opposite direction results in the sentence: "She/he gives it to me."
The signer, talking to the person B, says, "you give to him/her."
Exercise: practice giving a command with your signing partner. Review the previous vocabulary by using them.
YOUR PEN/\, YOU GIVE-ME.
BOOK/\, YOU GIVE-HER.
How to tell days in a calendar in ASL
Learn how to express days of the week in American Sign Language (ASL). Practice vocabulary.
Vocabulary: days of the week
There is a regional variation for Thursday T+H (now shown in the video). Also see another regional variation for Sunday (the second part).
Every day of the week
The following illustrations demonstrate some ASL signs to express "every day".
Mondays; every Monday
Tuesdays; every Tuesday
Fridays; every Friday
The movement from top downward is a form of pluralization for a every day of the week (e.g. Mondays, Fridays, etc). The handshape is the same for these days of the week.
Saturdays; every Saturday
Sundays; every Sunday
The following illustrations demonstrate some ASL signs to express days.
Day(s) in a week
These show you how to tell how many days in a week.
The ASL word day can be incorporated with a number between 1 and 9. For example, three days above.
The numbers beyond nine cannot be incorporated with the sign day. One sign the number and then day.
There is a difference of the handshape between the signs day and all-day. The movement/speed and the facial expression can convey either a regular "all day" or a "long all day". Facial expression is part of grammar.
all-night; full-night; overnight
See the dictionary for: tomorrow, yesterday, today, past, future. More vocabulary videos will be included in this page sometime in the near future.
HOMEWORK/\, YOU GIVE-ME TOMORROW.
TOMORROW, YOU GIVE-ME PAPER.
TODAY, YOU COME-TO-ix CLASS.
Review: bye-bye, see-you later, see-you tomorrow.